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What Is Modafinil?
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant medication used to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea.
While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer to improve wakefulness in animal and human studies, the research on its effectiveness for this use is not conclusive. Buy Modafinil is taken by mouth.
Side effects include headaches, anxiety, excessive adrenal gland overproduction, and nausea. Serious side effects in high doses include;
Delusions, unfounded beliefs, paranoia, irrational thought, and transient depression, possibly due to its effects on dopamine receptors in the brain, as well as allergic reactions.
The amount of medication used should be adjusted in those with kidney problems, as this medication has markedly increased side effects during renal insufficiency.
It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. Modafinil appears to work by acting on dopamine and modulating the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle.
Originally developed in the 1970s by French neuroscientist Michel Jouvet and Lafon Laboratories, Buy Modafinil has been prescribed in France since 1994, and was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998.
Its legal status varies by jurisdiction; in the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance, whereas in the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication.
In some countries no controls apply. It is available as a generic medication. In 2020, modafinil was the 302nd most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with just over 1,000,000 prescriptions.
Modafinil is generally considered safe for most people, with minor side effects such as headache, nausea, insomnia, anxiety, and dizziness.
Medical Uses Of Modafinil.
It is not considered to be a classical psychostimulant, but rather is classified as a eugeroic (wakefulness-promoting drug).
This Drug is used primarily for treatment of narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea.
For obstructive sleep apnea, it is recommended that patients use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) appropriately before they consider starting modafinil to help with daytime sleepiness.
Because of the risk for development of skin or hypersensitivity reactions and serious adverse psychiatric reactions, the European Medicines Agency recommended that new patient prescriptions should be only to treat sleepiness associated with narcolepsy.
Adverse Effects Of Modafinil.
The incidence of adverse effects are reported as the following: less than 10% of users report having a headache, nausea, and decreased appetite.
Between 5% to 10% of users may be affected with anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, diarrhea, and rhinitis. Provigil-associated psychiatric reactions have occurred in those with and without a pre-existing psychiatric history.
No clinically significant changes in body weight have been observed with its clinical trials, although decreased appetite and weight loss have been reported with Provigil in children and adolescents probably due to the much higher modafinil exposure in these individuals based on body weight (i.e., mg/kg doses).
Rare occurrences have been reported of more serious adverse effects, including severe skin rashes and other symptoms that are probably allergy-related.
From the date of initial marketing, December 1998, to January 30, 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration received six cases of severe cutaneous adverse reactions associated with Provigil, including erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and DRESS syndrome, involving adult and pediatric patients.
The FDA issued a relevant alert. In the same alert, the FDA also noted that angioedema and multi-organ hypersensitivity reactions have also been reported in postmarketing experiences.
In 2007, the FDA ordered Cephalon to modify the Provigil leaflet to add in bold-face print several serious and potentially fatal conditions attributed to Provigil use, including TEN, DRESS syndrome, and SJS.
The long-term safety and effectiveness of Provigil have not been determined. However, a longitudinal study in pediatric patients treated for narcolepsy for up to ten years demonstrated that Provigil and armodafinil were safe and effective, with the study concluding that use of modafinil and armodafinil significantly improved patients’ ability to stay awake and did not exacerbate preexisting psychiatric conditions.
Overdose Effects Of Modafinil.
In mice and rats, the median lethal dose (LD50) of modafinil online is approximately or slightly greater than 1250 mg/kg. Oral LD50 values for rats range from 1000 to 3400 mg/kg. Intravenous LD50 for dogs is 300 mg/kg.
Clinical trials on humans involving taking up to 1200 mg/day for 7–21 days. Known incidents of acute one-time overdoses up to 4500 mg did not appear to cause life-threatening effects, although a number of adverse experiences were observed.
It included excitation or agitation, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, aggressiveness, confusion, nervousness, tremor, palpitations, sleep disturbances, nausea, and diarrhea.
As of 2004, the FDA is not aware of any fatal overdoses involving buy Provigil alone (as opposed to multiple drugs including modafinil).
Modafinil Available forms
It is available as 100 and 200 mg oral tablets. It is also available as the (R)-enantiomer, armodafinil, and as a prodrug of modafinil, adrafinil.
- Narcolepsy: First-line treatment; it is used to treat the daytime fatigue associated with narcolepsy, and it has not been shown to improve symptoms of cataplexy.
- Sleep Work Shift Disorder: First-line treatment.
- Obstructive sleep apnea: Adjunct to continuous positive airway pressure
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